Denim , translated into Chinese as Danning, that is, denim cloth , is also denim. Since its birth in 1873, jeans have brought a revolutionary impact to the world. At first, it was the strongest and most durable work pants in history, and then it entered the life of the public, becoming synonymous with popularity and anti-bone, and shaping the denim culture in many aspects. This article will explain denim related terms, covering a wide range Wide range, it can be said to be a must-have book for walking and jumping in the denim world.
3x1 Weave Construction
Denim is usually woven with a 3x1 twill structure. The blue outer layer is "warp ( straight ) ", and the inner white is "weft ( horizontal ) ". 3x1 refers to the ratio of warp and weft in the fabric. This ratio The mid-latitude thread will first pass above three warp threads, and then pass under one warp thread, so that weaving is repeated, hence the name 3x1 .
Generally, denim with a pound weight greater than 10.5Oz is woven in 3x1 , and light weight fabrics below 10.5Oz are woven in 2x1 . The ratio of warp and weft can be adjusted according to different needs. In addition to 3x1 , there are also 2x1 and 1x1 denim fabrics.
The 500 series is the most famous product of early LS&CO (the abbreviation of Levis Company ) . The early Levis work pants were made of canvas or denim. Among them, only 501 has been handed down to this day, so it has become the most classic model of jeans in the world. From the beginning of Levis' establishment in the late 1800s to the middle of 1900 , the 501s of different years were slightly adjusted, which made the brand often use 501s of different years as a replica or a source of design inspiration.
Today, 501 still retains the most classic design, including seagull-shaped pocket flowers, two horses pulling a pair of jeans at the same time on the leather label, and the small red label / small red flag on the back pocket.
Abrasion brush old processing
Scrubbing treatment, deliberately using "friction" to make the original color jeans old and distressed. The most common method is manual brushing, industrial washing machines and pumice stone processing, which is suitable for mass production.
The highest achievement in the design of good color-brushed pants is to process them with "imitation of jeans worn by real people". Through the old-fashioned treatment, the texture and faded parts of natural wear can be imitated to achieve a natural color-washing effect, and the more natural the brushing The more color we intuitively like.
On the contrary, if it is the original color pants that have not been brushed, the process of wearing them every day is a natural way of brushing. Therefore, jeans that have been worn for 100 days, 300 days, or 500 days will have traces left by time, resulting in exclusive For personal jeans color fading features.
Acid-Wash acid wash brush color
Acid washing, also known as marble washing, moon washing, and snow washing in foreign countries, this washing method can make jeans produce a high degree of irregular contrast. Scrub with bleach for a snowflake, marble-like effect.
Aged-Wash distressed brush color
Distressed brushing, a wet denim processing method, through industrial washing machine washing and brushing, the jeans are softened and faded to achieve the effect of distressed jeans.
Anti-Fit Design Wide Pants
The design of wide trousers is a version that deliberately violates the principle of modification. Through the deliberately widened trousers, the lower body looks stronger and looser, providing the wearer with a special sense of visual lines.
Anti-Twist anti-twist bone tailoring
As long as it is a denim fabric that has not been "pre-shrunk", it will essentially twist along the direction of the twill, especially after washing. This phenomenon is commonly known as "twist bone" in Taiwan.
Most of the jeans can find the right or left side seam, reversed to the front of the trousers, precisely because of this feature.
To improve this situation, it is necessary to use "anti-twist bone tailoring", which rotates the trousers in the opposite direction during pattern making, so that the jeans will turn to the front when they are washed and twisted. The jeans with this kind of tailoring will be straighter in terms of trousers, visually The straighter the upper trouser seam is, the more modified the trousers are, and European brands are usually better at this aspect of design.
Antique-denim vintage denim
Retro tannin treatment refers to the method of producing retro colored pants after sandblasting, brushing and washing.
Vintage tannin refers to denim with uneven surface and special light tone. Denim made by ring spinning usually has a highly natural and irregular texture, which can be called vintage tannin.
Arcuate bag of flowers
Pockets are the decorative lines on the back pockets of jeans.
The bag flower design originated from Levis ' seagull bag flower, which was used as the brand's trademark at that time. Later, different bag flower designs became the details of the brands' respective recognition. So far, the U.S. trademark law continues to guarantee that no seagull-shaped pocket flowers similar to Levis can appear in the United States.
Atari Color Falling Traces ( Japanese )
Color fading, derived from Japanese, is used to indicate the high and low wrinkles on jeans. The color fading caused by different degrees of friction is usually most obvious on the front and back of the thighs and knees.
Authentic Denim pure denim
Genuine denim, especially denim that retains the original weave, details and pure cotton material of jeans. Advertisements in the 1990s often used pure denim to present the uniqueness and strong sense of style of denim.
Bartack reinforcement seam, bartack, bar sewing, date beating (Hong Kong, Fujian and Guangdong)
Rod-shaped sewing is a strip-shaped high-density sewing method used to strengthen the junction of jeans and key stress-bearing parts. It is usually used in zippers, front and rear trousers, pocket openings, and the junction of stitches under the legs. It is industrially used Sew with a stick sewing machine.
Back Cinch (buckle back) Paris buckle
Paris buckle, most of the jeans before 1942 had this design. At that time, the use of belts was not yet popular, and the Paris buckle was used to adjust the looseness of the back waist at that time, also known as the back waist adjustment ring.
Back Pocket Flasher Jeans Style Tags
On the right rear pocket of brand-new jeans, there is usually a piece of card or cardboard fixed. The pictures and texts on it are used to convey information such as the size, style and style of the jeans. This design originated from the early American advertising design in the 1950s .
Basket-woven fabrics are made of more than one fiber, cluster by cluster, interlaced warp and weft in a one-up-down manner, and the appearance forms a weave like a bamboo basket. Casual gentleman's fabric, Oxford cloth is one of the products of this kind of weave, and many linen fabrics often use similar weaves.
Belt Loops Belt Loops / Belt Loops
Belt loops refer to the ring-shaped structure on the waistband of trousers, which are used to fix the position of the belt and support the height of the wearing waist. Generally, jeans have five belt loops, but there is no certain number. Depending on the design, there can be more than seven or eight. Different widths of belt loops are suitable for different belt widths.
Belt loops were first invented in the United States in the 1920s , and since then they have gradually replaced the use of suspenders.
Bell Bottoms (Flare Jeans) bell bottoms
In the 1960s , a type of trousers called flared trousers appeared, which became popular in the 1970s . The waistline of the flared trousers is very tight from the crotch to the thigh, and the cut below the knee is greatly relaxed, forming a particularly obvious bell-shaped appearance when viewed from the side.
Big E (Capital E) Big E
Generally speaking, the small red flags on the back pockets of all Levis before 1971 are marked with the capital letter E of Levis , and the letter of the small red flag after that is changed to the lowercase E of Levis . Now this detail can be used to determine the year of the vintage Levis and whether it is for the genuine product.
In addition, brand new replicas also reproduce the same capital E design, so not all big E red labels are vintage jeans.
Bedford Cord Bedford wick cloth
Bedford Cord Cloth, originated from the small town of Bedford in the UK, has straight striped wicks on the outside. The wicks are wide and narrow. It feels like corduroy that has not been treated with bristles. The fabric is extremely strong and is often used for large curtains or work clothes.
The bleaching method uses bleaching substances to destroy the bond of the dye and bleach the yarn or fabric to adjust the depth of the fabric and remove impurities. It is often used in the brushing of jeans.
Boot Leg / Bootcut bootcut pants
Bootcut trousers, characterized by jeans designed with a particularly loose hem to fit boots. The development of boot pants came from the work pants worn by early sailors. At that time, the work pants had to be wide enough to cover the work boots. Later, it is often seen on straight-leg pants worn by denim. It was specially named in the 1980s to distinguish it from bell-bottom pants. Usually, boot-cut pants are paired with straight-leg cuts, also known as straight-leg boot-cut pants.
Broken Twill broken grain weave
The broken grain weave is different from the common "right twill weave" and "left twill weave" which have a single and obvious twill direction. The broken grain weave deliberately changes the left and right directions during the weaving process, forming a zigzag fabric direction. Jeans The rotation force of the "twisted bone" is also reduced, making the trouser legs more straight and beautiful.
Jeans before the 1960s only had the right twill weave that Levis was good at and Lee ’s unique left twill weave, until Wrangler invented the broken weave method and used it on the newly launched 13MWZ trousers to compete with the other two brands, creating a The name of today's three jeans.
Boyfriend Jeans boyfriend pants
Boyfriend pants are used to describe loose, oversized sizes or cuts, basically like girls wearing boyfriend pants, common boyfriend pants will have some damage embellishments more or less.
Bleeding blue blood ( blue dye drop )
Blue blood refers to the phenomenon that indigo dye falls from the fabric and transfers to other interfaces. Because of indigo dye’s unique coloring method, blue blood will naturally occur due to body movements and friction at every moment of wearing indigo clothing. Usually brand-new primary-color trousers are particularly easy to stain white clothes, shoes, sofas, etc. because of the heavy dye. This phenomenon is called blue blood.
Blue Bell Blue Bell ( Blue Bell predecessor )
The Blue Bell Company, established in 1904 , is famous for its production of one-piece overalls. After the Second World War, it began to produce jeans. The name of the first jeans is Wrangler ( Blue Brother ) , which is also the product of the same name that the brand changed its name in the future.
See the introduction of "Brother Blue" for details.
Blue Jeans blue jeans
Blue jeans means that jeans are usually made of blue dye. The classic word blue jeans has given inspiration to countless artists, creators, movie stars and singers in history.
Brushed surface brush treatment
Surface brushing treatment is a method of distressing jeans. In the process of brushing the colored pants, the industrial brush machine is used to lightly brush the front and back of the thighs to make the color lighter, and then sent to the industrial washing machine for overall washing.
Bull Denim thick pound denim
Thick pound denim is a common saying in the United States. It is used to refer to medium-weight denim jeans above 14oz . Usually thick pound denim is also used in the production of work clothes and other jackets. its characteristic.
Buddy Lee Antique Cowboy Doll
Buddy Lee is an auspicious doll launched by the early Lee brand. The dolls made of ceramics are especially worn with Lee 's own one-piece tannin overalls with a tannin peaked cap, or jeans with a blue velvet shirt with a cowboy hat, etc., in After Buddy Lee dolls became popular, more dolls with different clothes were released. Buddy Lee was discontinued after 1962 , and most of them are owned by collectors.
Button Fly -breasted
Breasted jeans are the earliest structure used to fix the front of men's trousers. After the invention of the zipper, more and more brands have switched to zippers, while classic jeans brands and mid-to-high-end brands still maintain the button-breasted approach.
Cast / Caste Denim Dyeing
Due to the use of different media in the denim coloring process, it will produce such shades of primary color fabrics except dark blue. In addition to coloring, it is also possible to additionally dye in order to achieve a special tone.
Each piece of primary color fabric has its own fabric luster tone, which may be yellowish, green, red, black, coffee, gray, etc.
Carrot Fit Carrot Pants
Carrot trousers, a noun used in early Chinese to describe jeans, are usually wider above the thigh, and close down to the calf, forming a radish-like appearance.
Cigarette Jeans cigarette pants
Cigarette trousers, a noun used to describe jeans in early Chinese, refers to straight or small straight trousers that look like cigarette pipes.
Coating surface coating treatment
Surface coating treatment refers to coating the surface of denim at the completion stage of denim cloth. Pigments, acrylics, resins, etc. are often used. Acrylic and resin PU coatings are transparent, and pigments can give the coating A layer of color that usually protects the surface of the fabric from rubbing, fading, staining, etc., while imparting a leather-like sheen to the surface.
The French first called the corduroy fabric the king's wick fabric, featuring a raised wick structure with straight stripes and a brushed, velvet micro-gloss texture on the surface. Corduroy jeans became popular in the 60s and 70s .
Corduroy is also known as the velvet of the poor. If you imagine the early Western countries, there must be many families who could not afford velvet. Corduroy has a similar visual sense, soft and firm touch, comfortable body feeling, and has a certain heat preservation ability. And it doesn't require much effort to maintain.
In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, royal nobles at that time wore velvet or flannel made of silk, while waiters or servants wore corduroy-like fabrics instead, hence the name poor man's velvet.
In the early 20th century, it was originally used as work clothes or outdoor work clothes. It was not until the 1950s and 1960s that the Beatles exposed them in the form of suits, and they entered the fashion circle in one fell swoop. They have been popular since the 1970s .
Cone Denim Mill
The Pine Cone Denim Factory is the oldest American cloth factory that has cooperated with Levis . It was established in Greensboro, North Carolina in 1895. It has been weaving denim for Levis since 1910 and has been a Exclusive supplier of Levis 501 fabric. Later, the fabric factory continued to grow into a multinational company, producing all kinds of high-end and low-end fabrics.
The branch factory that provides the Levis high-end selvage version is called " White Oak Plant", and it is also the most well-known branch of Songcone Factory, famous for weaving selvage. Unfortunately, due to the relocation of the manufacturing industry, the decline in demand for selvage, and economic considerations such as poor efficiency, the White Oak Factory closed in December 2017 after operating for more than 110 years. It is also the last selvage weaving in the United States. factory.
Cotton is the seed fiber of the Malvaceae family Cotton genus. It is native to the subtropical zone and can grow up to 6 meters high in tropical areas, generally 1 to 2 meters high. The flowers are milky white, turn dark red shortly after flowering and then wither, leaving small green capsules called cotton bolls. There are cottonseeds in the cotton bolls, and the fluff on the cottonseeds grows from the skin of the cottonseeds and fills the inside of the cotton bolls. When the bolls mature, they split open, exposing the soft fibers. The fibers are white to white with yellow, about 2-4 cm long , containing about 87-90 % cellulose.
The fibers of cotton are most often spun into yarns to make soft, breathable textiles. The fibers of cotton have been used in prehistoric times. Cotton fiber has been found in Mexico and the Indus Valley Civilization (present-day Pakistan and parts of India) in the 5th millennium BC. Although cotton was cultivated very early, it was not until the invention of the cotton gin that the cost of making cotton fiber was reduced and it began to be widely used. Cotton is now the most commonly used natural fiber in clothing, accounting for more than 40% of all fiber consumption , the most advanced cotton species are Egyptian cotton, Sea Island cotton, and Pima cotton.
Cotton can withstand high temperature and high pressure, especially abrasion resistance, and is easy to dye. The fiber strength of the water will not decrease but increase. The world's largest cotton producing areas are China, the United States, India, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Brazil, Turkey, Australia and Egypt Because of the unique characteristics of cotton and its historical origin, jeans are basically 100% pure cotton or blended with a small amount of other fibers.
Cotton Duck (Duck) work canvas
Work canvas is one of the most common types of cloth for work clothes. It is woven from medium to coarse yarns. The weave is dense and durable, and has a certain windproof function. The thickness is usually distinguished by the number of ounces. It is usually rough and stiff at the beginning of use, but it will quickly soften and adapt to the body shape after a few wears.
It has a wide range of applications, from work clothes to shoes to trousers to tents. The English name of canvas is Duck , which is derived from the Dutch sailor pants, which means hemp canvas.
Cross pattern is a rare weaving method, which makes the original color fabric have some visible cross texture, and the cross pattern will become more obvious after this kind of fabric is used.
Combed cotton refers to the yarn after the sliver has been combed. The yarns are straight and parallel to each other. The fiber quality of combed cotton is higher than that of carded cotton. The result is smoother, stronger and more solid. Suitable as a textile material because combing is time-consuming and combed cotton is relatively expensive.
Coin Pocket (Watch Pocket) coin bag / pocket watch bag
Coin pocket, the fifth pocket of jeans, also known as a pocket watch pocket, is located on the right hand side of the jeans pocket and is highly functional. It was first added to jeans in 1902 and was used by early miners to hold watches or matches. The later the change pockets of jeans became smaller and smaller, but they still retain some functionality.
Chambray sailor cloth, sailor cloth
Sailor cloth, originated from the towns in the north of France, is made of pure cotton or synthetic fiber flat weave structure, usually designed in plaid or straight stripes. The common use of yarn is blue and white interweaving, and the finished products are used as shirts, dresses and children's clothes.
The appearance and strength of sailor cloth are similar to denim cloth, but the thickness is much thinner. In the early days, sailor cloth with thicker pounds was not only worn by sailors and soldiers, but also widely used in the United States to make work shirts. name.
Chain car, as the name suggests, is a stitching thread that looks like a chain and is nested in circles. Traditional jeans are widely used in the production of chain cars. At the beginning, the effect of this kind of stitching is not visible, but after wearing and washing It will produce obvious effects such as "tornado" and "train track" due to the contraction of the chain. Replica brands often use genuine chain-link locomotives, such as Union Special antique industrial locomotives, and the old-fashioned effect produced is particularly retro.
Chino khakis, khaki pants
Khaki pants, the name of khaki pants comes from the military trousers worn by the British army in the 19th century. Chino can represent military trousers, and it is also the same name of the fabric itself. Khaki fabrics are usually woven from combed cotton in a dense 3x1 twill structure.
Khaki fabric is light and durable. The traditional khaki fabric is famous for its khaki color. Later, khaki pants of various colors appeared. Khaki pants are especially practical in warmer climates due to their thinner thickness and breathability.
Crocking friction fading
Rubbing, the color fading of the garment surface through physical friction, usually occurs in heavily dyed fabrics such as denim. Rubbing is one of the main reasons why denim will fade.
Denim Denim / Denim
Denim, a kind of fabric woven with blue warp and white weft in 3x1 twill weave, the obvious twill texture can be easily seen on the back, usually blue dyed warp is woven into dark blue primary color denim, made of denim Jeans were widely worn by various working classes as work clothes in the early days. Because of their unique strength and changeability in appearance, denim later also entered the life of the people and the application of the fashion industry.
There is a saying that the origin of denim comes from the town of Nimes in medieval France. In French, this kind of cloth is called "serge de Nimes" , which later evolved into Denim in English.
The widespread production of denim began after the establishment of Levis in the United States in 1879. Because denim is more comfortable and durable than canvas, it gradually replaced work pants made of canvas.
Denimhead denim lovers / denim fans
Tannin lovers, players who are keen on denim products. Some players love the original color pants and the unique variability of denim, so that they wear related products made of original color denim every day. There are groups of such players all over the world.
Number of dips
The number of times of dip-dyeing is to soak the yarn into the dyeing vat for dyeing and then take it out. The more times of dip-dyeing, the darker the color of the yarn.
In the process of making tannin-related products, the number of times of dip-dyeing refers to soaking the yarn or the whole piece of fabric in the indigo dyeing tank, and then taking it out and exposing it to the air to oxidize the indigo dye. Indigo dyes darker blue.
Distressed damage processing
Destruction processing, a kind of processing in the style of brushed trousers, through combining various distressing, rubbing, washing treatments, and processing with heavy strength, the finished product will have a particularly strong sense of old brushing, usually at the edge of the seam, There will be signs of damage throughout the fabric.
Dry Denim (Raw Denim) Raw Denim / Raw Jeans
Primary color tannin, primary color denim, means denim that has not been washed or washed in any way. The word Dry was first used by Nudie Jeans , and it was widely used after the primary color pants became popular. Generally, Raw is used to represent the original, Natural denim.
After being worn, the original color jeans will gradually adapt to the user's body shape, and the wrinkles on the body will also have different color fading due to the difference in life. This process is also called "pants maintenance".
Double-needle sewing, a type of industrial sewing, uses two parallel sewing threads to sew clothes. It is usually used for sewing the inner legs of jeans, etc. It can provide a flat appearance visually and provide higher strength than single-needle sewing.
Dual Ring Spun (Ring-Ring Denim) Double Ring Spun Yarn
Denim ( Dual Ring Spun Denim ) made of double ring spun fiber uses "ring spun" yarn as the warp and weft of the fabric, which is more expensive than the general ring spun denim that is only used in the warp. Compared with air-spun and ring-spun fabrics, this kind of fabric has a more uneven texture in appearance and a smoother feel.
Double ring spinning is commonly found in the highest-grade selvage denim fabrics in Europe, and the cost is the highest among all denim types.
Dungaree , the name is derived from the work pants worn by Dungri sailors in the Indian port in history. The work cloth produced locally was used by British ships to make sails and tents, and the remaining cloth was used to make work. pants.
In the 1900s , coveralls became popular among the working class in the form of denim and two denim shoulder straps. Today, the term is rarely used in English and is usually used to refer to antique work clothes.
DuPont (English: DuPont , full name EI du Pont de Nemours and Company , DD before NYSE delisting) is the second largest American chemical company in the world.
The predecessor was the DuPont Gunpowder Factory founded in July 1802 ; the DuPont Company was established in 1915 . During World War I, it gained more profits from arms production and expanded into a world-renowned chemical organization. In the 20th century, it led the polymer revolution and developed many highly successful materials, such as: LYCRA Lycra® , Lyocell , Vespel , neoprene , nylon, polyester, plexiglass, Teflon, Mai Mylar , Kevlar, M5 fiber , Nomex , Corian and Tyvek. DuPont also plays an important role in the refrigerant industry, developing and producing Freon series, and subsequent refrigerants with higher environmental protection. DuPont created synthetic pigments ( synthetic pigments ) and paints such as ChromaFlair in the color industry.
DuPont usually gave its material products brand names, many of which became better known and more commonly used than the generic or chemical names of the materials. Because DuPont pays too much attention to protecting its trademark and preventing its generalization, sometimes it will backfire. For example, Neoprene was originally a brand name, but it quickly became the general name for neoprene.
Dyeing (Dye) dyeing, dye
Dyeing refers to the process of coloring fibers, yarns, and fabrics.
The dyeing method has existed since the Neolithic Age. The most basic dyeing method is to put the dyed object into the hot dyeing vat. Usually, the dyeing vat must add dyeing medium, bleaching substances, etc., so that the dye and the fiber are bonded, and the dyeing is repeated until the demand is met. color.
There are roughly two types of dyes, natural dyes and synthetic dyes. Natural dyes are extracted from plants and minerals, and the dyeing quality is relatively restrained. Synthetic dyes are substances invented from chemical research. Today, most textile manufacturers use synthetic dyes for dyeing. The reason is that synthetic dyes are cheap and widely used, and the dyeing effect is more vivid.
Denim fabrics can be dyed with natural indigo dyeing or synthetic indigo dyeing. The methods include "rope dyeing", "hank dyeing", "garment dyeing" and "fiber dyeing".
Dobby Dobby Cloth
Dobby cloth, woven by Dobby looms, is a kind of fabric whose surface is decorated with geometric patterns woven into the fabric, because the extra geometric patterns protruding from the surface of the fabric have a unique feel.
Ecru cotton ( color )
Raw cotton refers to the natural undyed color of cotton. Usually, the horizontal "weft" on the inside of jeans is bleached white cotton. If the whole pair of jeans is made of raw cotton color, it can be called raw cotton color jeans. Usually It is beige, creamy white and other colors.
Eco Denim eco-friendly denim
Environmentally friendly tannin refers to the use of environmentally friendly cotton, fiber raw materials, dyes, or denim made from recycled raw materials. For example, European cloth factories,
Embroidery (Pocket Stitching) Embroidery, Pocket Stitching
Embroidery refers to the decorative thread on jeans, sometimes in a different color from the stitching to create visual effects such as contrast and depth.
Common embroidery uses the "pocket flower" design on the back pocket of jeans, or the large pattern sewn on the back of a denim jacket. Such embroidery designs were especially popular in the 1970s .
Elastane elastic fiber
Elastane, a fiber used in elastic denim fabric.
Enzyme washing, yeast and other enzymes are used to eat the cellulose of cotton clothes. Because of the "ring dyeing" characteristic of denim fabric, blue dye mainly exists in the outer layer of yarn, and the surface layer of denim fabric washed with enzyme is eaten away Later, the indigo dye was also removed to achieve the effect of lightening and aging the jeans. Compared with the traditional stone washing method, enzyme washing is much more environmentally friendly, because pumice mining is a method that destroys the environment through open-pit mining.
Color fading, repeated wearing and washing causes the indigo dye on the denim fabric to fall off, and the resulting fading effect is called color fading. The color fading on the denim will be lighter than the surrounding color, such as "cat's whiskers", "water ripples", "train tracks", and "tornadoes" are all the result of color fading, except for wearing primary color pants In addition to the natural color fading, there are many industrial methods that can simulate the effect of color fading.
Version, version refers to the design principle of a pair of jeans and the effect of wearing them on the upper body. The most common jeans fits include fitted, skinny, straight-leg, bootcut, loose, low-rise, high-rise, and more. People of different shapes have their own trousers that are most suitable for them. For example, men and women with big buttocks are suitable for boot-cut trousers and straight-leg trousers, which can balance the proportion of the upper and lower body. Looks too crow's feet or too loose.
Finishing treatment, the finishing treatment before the clothes leave the factory, giving a finished appearance effect.
The finishing of trousers is one of the final steps in factory processing. It usually gives the trousers a worn-in, aged look and feel. There are various ways to achieve this effect. For example, enzyme washing and Stonewashing method is one of the ways to complete the treatment. Other methods include bleaching, over-dyeing, sandblasting, napping and other effects.
Five Pocket Jeans Five Pocket Jeans
Five-pocket jeans, the most common form of jeans, traditional jeans have two hand pockets on the front and side pockets behind the buttocks, plus a small coin pocket on the right pocket, for a total of five pockets.
Almost all modern jeans brands produce five-pocket designs, however, the original Levis antiques, samples, etc. in the late 1800s only had 2 or 3 pockets, two in the front and one in the back.
Flannel generally refers to all shirting fabrics with a fluffy surface effect, whether it is "twill fabric", plain woven fabric, printed fabric, fiber dyed fabric, etc.
Flannel was originally made of wool. It is loose in texture, light in weight and warm. It is usually used in the production of clothing, most commonly shirts, pajamas, and bed sheets.
The popularity of flannel shirts began in the 1990s with the popularity of decadent culture, and the most classic design is the flannel cloth with check pattern.
Flag small flag
Means "little red flag"
Fox Fiber fox cotton
Fox Cotton, Fox Cotton® is a special colored cotton thread from the United States. This cotton is a long-fiber colored cotton species improved by American Sally Fox in 1989. Fox cotton is not a variety created by Sally , but she will use the original The high-quality fox cotton has been improved into a commercially usable strength and production method. Because it has a natural earth color, it does not require additional dyeing when used. It is a unique and more environmentally friendly raw material.
The most famous two colors of fox cotton are brown and green fox sleep. These two colors are the earliest products launched by Sally Fox , and they are also the improved species that made fox cotton famous. The denim fabric that uses the natural brown color of fox cotton as the weft thread reveals a kind of The texture of the earth color will tend to be bright blue after the color fades.
Garment Dye Garment Dyeing
Garment dyeing, the principle of Garment Dye ( garment dyeing ) is different from the pre-dyeing of general fabrics or denim yarns before weaving into cloth. This type of fabric can be judged from small details such as stitching and fabric labels that are dyed the same color as the fabric.
Generally, greige or semi-bleached fabrics are used, and pigments are used to coat the surface. After washing, uneven fading occurs at different stitch positions. High-level workmanship can make the clothes have an original old feeling.
In addition to being faster and more elastic in commercial applications, this kind of fabric also has more colors to choose from. It is very suitable for the design of casual underwear, because the clothes are dyed with water after completion, and this kind of fabric will not shrink at all. It also has a high degree of comfort in wearing.
Genes Sailor Work Pants Classic
Genes , a kind of work pants worn by sailors in Genoa, Italy, is generally believed to be the prototype of jeans.
The French first called the work pants worn by Genoese sailors "Blue de Genes" , referring to the blue work pants of Genoa, and finally simplified it into the word Genes . Now it is generally believed that the English word jeans comes from the same word. From Genes .
There is a design brand in Denmark that uses Blue de Genes as its brand name and focuses on jeans. It is good at making gentleman's workwear and men's clothing.
Genoa, one of the most important ports in Italy, is generally believed to be the birthplace of jeans.
In the 16th century, the Genoa Navy first began to use jeans as work pants for sea life because of the toughness of jeans. At that time, sailors dragged their pants and fishing nets behind the ship, and the sun and sea water washed the pants at the same time. Jeans gradually washed white.
Greycast gray denim
Gray-dyed denim is a method of indigo dyeing of denim fabric. The principle is that before the yarn is indigo-dyed, it is dyed with gray sulfide, and the result is gray-colored denim.
Greencast green dyed denim
Green-dyed tannin, a method of indigo dyeing denim fabric, the principle is that before the yarn is indigo-dyed, it is dyed with a green sulfide medium, and the result is green-dyed tannin with a greenish tone. After fading, the green part will become more and more obvious, resulting in a yellow-green color fade.
Gold Rush gold rush
Gold Rush, a period in the 19th century in the United States, when countless people immigrated to North America and Australia in search of gold. This was also the same period when Levis Struass came to live in the San Francisco area and became a local businessman. Levis got involved in the gold rush. The wave of durable work pants produced during the heat has established his current place in history.
Hand / Handle fabric feel
The feel of the fabric refers to the tactile feeling of the denim fabric, such as smoothness, texture, stiffness, elasticity and thickness.
Hank Dye is a very unique dyeing method, which can achieve the maximum penetration of indigo dyeing, and can make the finished product soft and a bit extravagant.
First, soak bundles of bundled cotton yarn with water to prepare the cotton yarn for subsequent indigo dyeing, then soak it in the indigo dyeing vat for 48 hours, take it out, wash it, and repeat the soaking. This step will be repeated several times. After reaching the desired depth of blue, the tufts are steam-fixed.
Because the entire dyeing process does not use as many chemicals as industrial processes, Hank dyeing can minimize the damage to the cotton yarn itself, and at the same time, the blue saturation of the finished product will be higher than that of ordinary dyeing methods.
The Hank dyeing process requires a lot of time and manual operations, and the results obtained are relatively uneven.
Hem trousers stitched
Trouser leg sewing refers to the finishing at the trouser leg after modifying the length of the trousers. The fabric is folded twice and sewn in place to prevent the beard from falling apart.
Seaming the trouser legs will make the jeans look more finished. Usually, the chain car machine is used to sew the jeans in the factory. The "chain car" will generate a circular pull on the stitched trouser legs, which will be generated after the sewing is completed or after washing. "Tornado" at the bottom of the trousers. Usually, the tornado effect of the old machine is particularly obvious and has a retro appearance. Generally, private tailors do not have such sewing machines.
Hemp fiber ( hemp fiber ) , hemp fiber is one of the most controversial fibers among all fibers, because hemp fiber and hemp leaf are the same species, and hemp tree is an annual plant that can be planted in most low climate areas The low-cost plant, the natural fiber of hemp, and the seed oil have over 25,000 possible industrial applications.
Putting aside the baseless negative reputation of the hemp tree, the hemp crop is a versatile plant. There are records of cultivation in China as early as 4000 BC. Hemp can be said to be one of the strongest fibers when spun into fibers, and its physical properties are similar to flax.
Historically, the first national flag of the United States was made of hemp, and the jeans Levis originally produced were also light-weight canvas woven from hemp.
Whiskers, the word Hige comes from the whiskers of a cat in Japanese, the creases on the legs caused by wearing primary-colored trousers, after long-term wear and tear, the resulting contrasting colors and color fading marks, whiskers mainly refer to the thigh area Shaded lines like a cat's whiskers. Color-painted trousers are sometimes hand-brushed or brushed to simulate the color fading of cat whiskers on the thighs due to design requirements.
Hipster Jeans hippie pants
Hippie pants, by definition, refer to jeans with a waist circumference less than 10 centimeters below the navel, and the length of the trousers is only 8-20 centimeters, also known as low -waist pants.
Hippie trousers briefly returned to fashion in the 1990s with Alexander MacQueen designs, and were later worn by singers such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera in the early 2000s .
Herringbone herringbone / herringbone weave
Herringbone / herringbone weave, also known as broken twill weave, describes the unique V- shaped weave pattern of herringbone. It differs from a normal chevron by a break when reversed, which makes it resemble a broken zigzag. The pattern is called a herringbone because it resembles the skeleton of a herring.
Herringbone fabric, usually composed of wool, is one of the most popular fabrics for suits, coats and bags, and tweed is often woven in a herringbone pattern. In recent years, many brands have pioneered herringbone weave denim fabrics, such as Naked & Famous , and more and more brands have made them.
Honey Combs honeycomb
Honeycomb, in the process of wearing the original color trousers, the position of the back knee is caused by the repeated wrinkles, and the appearance is similar to the honeycomb, hence the name.
Commonly used unit in the clothing industry, 1 inch equals 2.54 centimeters
Indigo indigo dye
Indigo dye, also referred to as blue dye for short, is derived from the Greek word Indikon , which means something from India. Indigo has a bright and strong blue color, and most of them are grown in the equatorial region. The use of indigo dye was first recorded in China, India and the Middle East in 1600 BC.
Indigo dye is traditionally a natural dye extracted from plants, but it was completely replaced by synthetic indigo dye in the 20th century after the invention of synthetic indigo dye, because the dyeing effect of synthetic indigo dye is more stable, color fast and cheaper than natural dye. .
Because indigo dyeing can achieve the unique characteristic of "ring dyeing" that does not completely penetrate cotton yarn, almost all modern jeans are made of indigo dyeing. The annual output of indigo dyeing is tens of thousands of tons, and dyeing a pair of jeans consumes about 3-12 grams indigo dye.
Inseam inner leg length / panty length
Inner leg length / underpants length refers to the length from the point below the crotch of the jeans to the hem of the trousers. It can be changed to different suitable lengths according to different leg lengths.
Iro Ochi Key Shade Fall
Key color fading, derived from Japanese, refers to the parts of jeans with obvious color fading, most of which are located on the thighs, front knees, stitches, back knees, etc.
Japanese Denim (Japanese Selvedge) Daily Denim / Japanese Red Ear Denim
Japanese-made denim refers to the denim fabrics exported from small and medium-sized companies in Japan, which are famous all over the world for their super high quality.
Japanese tannin has been studied by a group of Japanese craftsmen in the old way since the 1990s . Old-fashioned denim shuttle looms are used to weave so-called "selvage denim" with "ring-spun yarn" to make high-end products with an old-fashioned taste. jeans.
Today's small-scale production of Japanese selvage has a group of diehard fans all over the world. Compared with the general mass-produced denim fabric, it has a high degree of craftsmanship in the production process. Japan is especially famous for "primary denim" because Selvage is the display of the highest quality denim fabric; the continuation of culture; the inheritance of craftsmanship. Jeans brands include Evisu , Edwin and PRPS .
Jeans, a type of trousers, usually made of blue-dyed denim.
The official invention date of the word jeans was set on May 20 , 1873 , the date when the founder of Levis obtained the patent authorization of the US government. At that time, the patent for fixing denim fabric with rivets was used in Levis ' jeans products.
After the 1930s , more and more movies related to the West appeared in Hollywood. The cowboys in them all wore jeans on camera. Visitors to the farm will bring a piece of jeans back to their hometown to wear to their family and friends, so there is a western style - the combination of denim jacket and trousers appears on the upper and lower body, but jeans are really popular among young and old. Until the blessing of movie stars in the 1950s , actors such as James Dean and Marlon Brando gave jeans a dangerous and rebellious character, while actresses like Marilyn Monroe gave jeans A sexy, glamorous image. Soon young people began to wear jeans. After the hippie trumpets became popular in the 1960s , jeans officially became a household name in the United States, a must-have daily item in the wardrobe, and was also regarded by the outside world as a symbol of American culture. One of the indicators.
Knitting, the way of knitting is like knitting wool, which looks like a honeycomb, so the knitting method provides space for stretching, such as sweaters, underwear, and various lace. The advantage is that it is elastic and wrinkle-resistant. Even when the fiber itself is not elastic, the knitting method can still create elasticity. Subdivision can also be divided into circular knitting, warp knitting, and flat knitting.
"Knitwear" is often seen in advertisements, but it is actually relative to plain weaving ( woven ) . Because of the different weaves, the knit is more elastic. Generally speaking, it is also warmer and more comfortable. However, elasticity and warmth are relative and have to be traded off. The thicker the fabric, the warmer it will be, and the less elastic it will be.
Laser laser processing
Laser processing is an innovative method of distressing and brushing jeans. It burns the surface of denim fabric with laser to make the fabric fade. The speed and accuracy are better than the traditional brushing method, and the production process can also save a lot of chemical substances. It is the same as water, but due to the limitation of laser color painting itself, it will also be combined with other processing methods to produce a more natural color painting effect.
Laundry washing method
Washing method, the process that the processing factory makes the original color pants undergo different washing and aging methods to produce the washing effect required by the brand, including "stone washing method", "enzyme washing method", "sandblasting method", "dyeing method" and chemical brushing , "bleaching method" and so on.
The world's largest washing processing plants are located in Italy, Japan, California, Romania, Tunisia, Turkey and other places.
Leather Patch ( Brand patch )
Leather label, a rectangular leather tag fixed on the back of the jeans, usually made of genuine leather or special washable paper, the original purpose of the leather label is to inform customers about the durability of the jeans, and at the same time display the brand with a graphic design own tone.
Left-Hand Twill (LHT) left twill denim
Left twill denim, a kind of twill denim, the twill direction of the fabric is from the upper left to the lower right. The fabric of left twill denim has a smoother surface, with a softer hand feel and fluffy wool feeling. After washing More noticeable, there are usually obvious straight lines and "vertical falling" on the color fall.
D. Lee (the inventor of Lee Jeans) prefers to use this type of fabric, so Lee is also known for the left twill side fabric, and Levis makes a difference from the general right twill fabric.
Twisted bone, the phenomenon that the trousers of jeans rotate due to the characteristics of the denim fabric itself. In Taiwan, it is commonly known as twisted bone, which describes the phenomenon that the side seam of the trousers is twisted from the side to the front. The trousers of the left and right twills are twisted in opposite directions. Manufacturers will use "anti-twist bone fabric" to avoid this phenomenon, or use "broken weave" to have the same anti-twist effect.
On the contrary, some design brands will deliberately rotate the trouser legs to produce a unique visual effect.
In addition, the original-color pants that have not been "washed" and "pre-shrunk" are particularly prone to bone twisting. For re-engraved brands, special attention is paid to the restoration of this phenomenon, because the early jeans did not make any "resistant" Twisted Bone Cut".
Leg Opening trousers
Cuffs, which are the openings at the end of the jeans tubes, can vary greatly between different styles of jeans. In the measurement of jeans, the data of the width of the trouser legs is often provided, so that customers can know the width of the trousers just by looking at the data.
Levis Levis jeans brand
One of the three famous jeans brands in the United States, the other two are Lee Jeans and Wrangler
Lee Jeans jeans brand
One of the three famous jeans brands in the United States, the other two are Levis and Wrangler
Loom, a loom refers to a machine or a wooden frame that can be used to weave cloth. Simply put, the warp yarn can be stretched and tightened on the loom, and then the weft yarn can pass through the warp thread in different structures to weave into Cloth, the earliest weaving technology in history was 7000-8000 BC, and the earliest loom was discovered in Egypt in 1800 BC.
Today there are many different types of looms in the industry. The most commonly used for denim fabrics are the old-fashioned "shuttle loom" and the modern "projectile weft insertion loom". The fabric is woven repeatedly through the warp threads, and the selvage structure is formed at the left and right ends of the fabric, so that the fabric has its own fixed edge. Before the 1950s , all jeans were made on old-fashioned shuttle looms.
The difference of modern looms is that there is no need to use a shuttle to guide the weft, but the compressed air is used to shoot the yarn from side to side like a bullet, and pass through the weft to imitate weaving into cloth. The denim made in this way has an unfixed For loose edges, it is necessary to sew the edges with cock and other methods to avoid bearding. After the 1950s , most manufacturers began to develop and switch to modern looms.
Loomstate original cloth state
The original fabric state refers to the state of the fabric leaving the shuttle loom without any finishing treatment. In order to pursue the same characteristics as the early denim fabrics such as "unshrunk" and "unwashed", some denim brands today will sew jeans from the original fabric and let customers wear them after desizing at home. Because there are many variables in the method, brands usually make jeans from pre-shrunk fabrics, or use the original fabrics, and sell them after washing to remove shrinkage.
Loop Dye is the most common industrial method for dyeing indigo-dyed cotton yarn. Its principle is similar to that of "rope dyeing". Cotton yarns that achieve a darker blue color simply need to be re-dyed.
Spandex, commonly known as Lycra, is an elastic fiber invented by DuPont in 1958 . It has strong elasticity, stretches up to 600% , and can return to its original shape. It is stronger, more breathable and more wear-resistant than rubber. When it first came out, it revolutionized many areas of the apparel industry. The proportion of spandex used in general clothes is relatively small. In North America, it is rarely used on men's clothes and more on women's clothes.
Lyocell Tencel Cotton
21st century green fiber, it is N- methyl chromium oxide ( NMMO ) as a solvent method, and is used for regenerated biological fiber made by wet spinning. Improve natural degradation, 99.5% of the amine oxide solvent can be recycled and reused in the production process. "Extremely low pollution, and does not pollute the environment." Lyocell fiber has many advantages, including moisture absorption, breathability, heat conduction, antibacterial, and anti-dust mite. Lyocell fiber is soft and comfortable to the touch, but very strong in texture. It is currently the highest quality natural and environmentally friendly fiber.
Jacron paper label
Jacron paper label is a special paper with a leather-like appearance, which can withstand high-strength washing and long-term use. It has the ability to resist tearing, and has excellent ink absorption and printing capabilities. Hot stamping, embossing and other processing methods can be used. It is often used to replace the use of genuine leather "leather label", which is a more environmentally friendly artificial material.
Yarn mercerizing treatment refers to a special type of cotton yarn that is treated with high-concentration caustic soda or liquid ammonia under tension, so that it not only has the original characteristics of cotton, but also has a silky luster. Fabric mercerization: cotton fabrics are treated with high-concentration caustic soda or liquid ammonia under tension, so that the fabrics have better gloss, crispness and shape retention.
Millwash factory wash
Factory washing, as the name implies, means that the product has been washed in the factory before it is delivered to the customer.
Cat's whiskers, in English, mean the same as "cat's whiskers" and "cat's whiskers", referring to the beard-like coloring lines.
Natural Dye natural dye
Natural dyes, unlike pigment dyes, unless the yarn is first treated with a dye medium, natural dyes usually have no adhesion to fabric yarns. Such characteristics are very troublesome for dyeing processing, so this kind of dyes Usually less resistant to sunlight or friction.
Natural dyes generally come from plants, animals, or mineral sources. Before the invention of synthetic dyes in the 1850s , clothing was dyed with natural dyes. Usually, the colors are rich but tend to be earth tones and neutral colors.
Natural Indigo Dye Natural Indigo Dye
Natural indigo dye, the indigo dye extracted from plants, usually takes more than one hundred days to make, and is fermented by mixing the leaves of indigo plants and lime. The coloring method of indigo dyeing is usually hand-dyed by repeatedly soaking fabrics or yarns into the dyeing vat. The more times of "dipping", the darker the indigo dyeing will be.
Nylon (Nylon) , the chemical name is polyamide fiber. Because nylon is a synthetic fiber with natural fiber properties, it is very suitable for interweaving and mixing with other fibers to become a high-quality and durable composite fiber. The level of application is also very wide, ranging from diving suits, slimming underwear, surfing suits, fishing pants, cold-proof clothing, etc., to backpacks, environmental protection bags, beverage can sets, and even building materials.
One Wash treatment
One-wash treatment, the original color jeans with "non-shrunk treatment" or " shrink-to-fit " (STF) setting will have a large shrinkage rate when they are washed with water for the first time. For many novices This is a very troublesome problem, so modern brands basically provide customers with one-wash jeans to remove all shrinkage, and they can be worn directly when they buy them home.
Open End Denim Open Rotor Textile Denim
Denim fabric woven from cotton yarn spun by Open-End Spinning is Open End Denim , which is the most common type of denim in modern times. , so it is also commonly known as air spinning.
Unlike traditional ring spinning * note that twisting is caused by complicated methods, air spinning uses compression to produce "mock twist" in cotton yarn. Usually, this method is in a non-parallel state during the spinning process, and the quality of the output is higher than that of The texture of the yarn spun from ring spinning is rough.
Therefore, the air-spun yarn tends to absorb more indigo dye during the denim yarn dyeing process, and the dye penetration is closer to the core of the cotton yarn, making it difficult for the fabric to fade to a subtle level.
The advantage is that the time and material costs of air spinning can be saved, and it has been the mainstream production method in the industry since its invention in the 1970s .
Organic cotton, organic cotton is cotton grown organically from non-GMO cotton seeds, and without the use of any synthetic agricultural chemicals such as fertilizers or pesticides. Since organic cotton is not treated with chemical agents, it is especially suitable for infant clothing and will not induce allergies such as asthma or atopic dermatitis.
As of 2017 , 179 countries around the world grow organic cotton, with an annual output of 3.2 million metric tons.
Cotton covers 2.5 % of the world's arable land but uses 16 % of the world's chemical pesticides, more than any other staple crop. Among them, 8 of the 15 commonly used pesticides are rated as possible or confirmed carcinogenic to humans by the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the label is allowed by the certified organic label. Its production should promote and enhance biodiversity and biological cycles. In the United States, cotton plantations must also meet requirements enforced by the USDA's National Organic Program to be considered organic.
Overall (Dungarees) Overalls with Suspenders
One-piece suspender work clothes are usually made of denim or canvas. Suspender work clothes were first designed for low-level laborers in the eighteenth century. Denim was not yet popular at that time, and they were made of heavy or durable fabrics. As the outer trousers are put on the original trousers for protection, the suspenders are designed to support the position of the whole trousers.
In the 1850s , the color of suspenders began to represent a person's social and occupational class. For example, white was worn by painters, blue was worn by farmers, and stripes were worn by railroad workers. In the 1950s , suspender work clothes were worn by rivet workers who joined the industrial manufacturing during World War II, and thus symbolized the female working class during the war.
Overdye method ( Overdye ) is common in black and blue dyed denim. Overdyeing is to over-dye the fabric or perform secondary dyeing. The general design will cover the over-dyeing dye on the blue dyeing or black dyeing of the original color. , creating unique shades with changes after use.
Oxidization oxidation reaction
Oxidation reaction, taking the oxidation reaction of primary color pants as an example, in the process of indigo dyeing in the process of dyeing the yarn, it needs to go through the dyeing vat for "dip dyeing" and then return to the air for oxidation reaction to successfully form the color. The yellow in the medium gradually turns green and finally oxidizes to dark blue.
The number of ounces, often abbreviated as oz , is used to indicate the weight of denim in ounces per square yard. The thickness of commonly used denim fabrics is divided into 5-6oz featherweight pounds; 8-12oz light weight denim; 12- 15oz medium denim; 16-20oz heavy denim; 21oz and above are called heavy denim; 32oz and 40oz are currently the thickest denim fabrics in the world.
Patina (fades) traces of aging, aging
Aging, similar to the principle of "fading", refers to the deep texture and gloss changes of something after time and experience. Aging not only appears in denim, but also in the most common places. There are materials like leather, wood, metal, stone walls and various natural materials.
Patch (patchwork) patch, patch
Patch refers to the part where jeans are pasted or sewn with other pieces of denim or other fabrics. Usually, the patch is used to cover the damaged part for reinforcement. Visually, it gives people a feeling of DIY patches. Brand color pants sometimes deliberately Simulates this aged and patched effect.
Patent Nr. 139/121 Levis rivet patent
Levis rivet patent Nr. 139/121 , in 1873 , the U.S. government granted the Levis brand a structural patent for fixing the load-bearing parts of jeans with rivets. Before the patent expired in 1890 , U.S. law did not allow others to use this construction method.
Piece-Dyed Garment Dyeing
Garment Dyed, same as Garment Dyed .
Pigment dyeing refers to the use of pigments that have no adsorption to fabric fibers for dyeing. In this dyeing method, resin is used as a dye medium to assist the pigments in coloring. Clothes dyed with pigments tend to have a "color fading" effect after use. , giving clothing a vintage, natural look.
The principle of pigment dyeing is that this kind of dye is only adsorbed on the outer layer of the yarn, and does not penetrate to the center of the yarn, so it has poor color fastness, and it is easy to gradually fade after wearing and washing. Usually, denim related brands like to use this kind of dyeing way to create distressed casual and work clothing types.
Pima Cotton / Pima Cotton
Pima cotton is the acme of textile technology in the processing of plant cotton fibers at present. It is the collective name for the most extreme long-fiber cotton ( ELS ). It only accounts for three percent of the world's total cotton production. It is a kind of island cotton produced in the west and southwest), mainly in the Andes alpine region of "Peru", and a few in Egypt, Israel, and Australia.
Pima cotton's ultra-long fibers and uniform yarn count make the fabric softer, more delicate, and more shiny, and it is not easy to pilling. It has better air permeability than ordinary cotton, and its fiber strength is nearly stronger than ordinary cotton. 50% , Pima cotton can evenly absorb dyes when woven into fabrics, and the colors are bright and long-lasting.
Plain weaving is a traditional weaving method. It is generally like weaving a bamboo basket. The weaving method of straight lines and horizontal lines is the simplest plain weave, which is called plain weave, such as common shirts. If it is two up and one down or three up and down, etc. different weaves, "twill" will appear, such as jeans. There are also more jumpers so more complicated satin patterns. These three production methods are all woven.
Plain woven fabric, also known as parallel fabric or woven fabric ( customized name in mainland China ) , is a fabric composed of parallel warp yarns and parallel weft yarns interlaced at right angles. Plain woven fabrics are generally less elastic ( disregarding the addition of elastane ) than knitted fabrics, but are more resistant to wear.
Comparing plain weave and twill, the advantage of plain weave is breathability, while twill is more durable. But these two kinds of fabrics are often collectively referred to as plain weaving, because they can see straight lines and horizontal lines intersecting at right angles.
Ply number of shares
The number of strands is a unit used to indicate how many strands of fiber a yarn has. By rotating the cotton thread in the opposite direction, it can be seen that the fabric is woven using several strands of cotton thread. Jeans usually use 2-3 strands of yarn.
Pre-shrinking can refer to fabrics that have undergone "pre-shrinking treatment", or refers to the way that the fabrics are pre-watered after finishing the treatment. Usually, the shrinkage rate of pre-shrunk clothes after buying home does not exceed 3% .
The fabric usually accumulates a certain amount of tension during the production process, and after washing, the fabric fibers will release the tension and shrink back to the original length of the fiber. This phenomenon often causes the clothes to shrink greatly, and the shrinkage rate is too high on jeans Can cause severe effects, so pre-shrinking is required to prevent subsequent problems.
Traveling businessman Hal Burgess once lived in a hotel flooded in the 1970s , soaking all the jeans stored in the hotel. Finally, he was forced to wash every pair of pants in the hotel swimming pool, dry them and sell them in a pre-shrunk state. sale.
Polycore Yarn polyester fiber yarn
Polyester fiber yarn refers to the yarn blended with pure cotton polyester fiber to improve the strength and characteristics of the yarn. This kind of yarn is usually used in the sewing thread of the jeans leg, inner leg, etc. Such a thread can provide higher strength and durability than pure cotton thread, while polyester fiber thread can resist heavy Washable, distressed finish, plus polyester stitching helps control seam shrinkage, preventing excessive fabric wrinkling.
Poplin is the quintessential shirting fabric. Its high-count yarns create a dense fabric that is tightly woven to create a thin, structured, smooth fabric that feels as smooth as silk. Some designs use rougher lower weft threads, resulting in a slightly non-protruding structure on the surface. The fabric itself has good dirt resistance and is not easy to wrinkle.
Pumice, a kind of volcanic rock, is used for washing of jeans. Due to its high strength and light weight, and the rough surface is full of holes, it is especially suitable for friction processing of "brushing treatment". Its function is similar to that of sandpaper. A matte finish removes the indigo stain on the surface of the denim fabric to create a distressed brushed color.
Raw Denim (Dry Denim) raw denim, raw denim, raw denim
Original color tannin means that the tannin fabric has not been washed or watered, nor has it been washed or imitated. It is solid and filled with dark blue dye, and has a unique luster in color due to the arrangement of the fabric. Pants made of primary-color denim are called primary-color pants. In addition to "five-pocket jeans," there are also brands that make primary-color pants in the form of "khaki pants" with diagonal pockets and casual pants.
Jeans that are naturally worn in the original color state will record the life and traces of the user. Activities and the environment will produce color fading in the creases of the jeans, and the output belongs to the user's personal characteristic changes. This process is also called "pants maintenance". ".
Original color pants are a favorite type of the "jeans lovers" community. Before the 1970s , all jeans were sold in the state of original color pants, allowing customers to "tame the pants" by themselves. Some jeans that were not "pre-shrunk" at that time even needed to be worn in the shower or swimming on the body to make him shrink to the same size as the body. Failure to do so may lead to shrinking even more small !
Raised Belt Loops belt loop raised reinforcement
Belt loop raised reinforcement refers to the raised spine-like structure in the middle of the "belt loop". If you don't look carefully, you may not be able to see it clearly, but such details will be noticed by the most high-end players. This structure is made by sewing a structure or sliver in the center of the belt loop, which creates an extra bulge in the center of the belt loop to resist long-term use and friction. Jeans with this type of structure are very rare and are usually found in high-end jeans. Replica jeans or designs from Japanese denim brands.
Raised Back Pocket
The raised back pocket is reinforced, which is the same principle as the raised raised belt loop. A sliver structure is added to the stitching on the uppermost edge of the back pocket to make the upper edge of the back pocket more abrasion-resistant and usable.
Rayon rayon fiber
Rayon (ㄌㄟˊ ㄧㄥˊ), English Rayon or Viscose , also translated as rayon, Rayon is a kind of artificial fiber. Made from natural plant cotton, it is a recycled fiber. Good water absorption, easy to dye, wash, acid and alkali resistant, not easy to pilling, soft texture, better wearing properties than cotton, and similar price to cotton.
According to "Historical Records", the Yellow Emperor married Leizu, the daughter of the Xiling family, as his wife. The historical records recorded "Leizu was the first silkworm", that is, the person who invented silkworm farming. Therefore, it is also recorded in later history books that people respect Leizu as "the ancestor Silkworm”, that is, the first god who started raising silkworms! Therefore, the Chinese translation of the name originated from this ancient character, and it was translated as Lei Ying.
For the early Europeans, Rayon aimed to imitate oriental silk, and artificially produced fibers. As shown in the English text, " RAY " means that it can be like The "brightness" that shines like silk in the East is the earliest type of fiber extracted from wood pulp by humans. It belongs to the same cellulose fiber as cotton, hemp, and acetate fiber.
Whether it is natural raw materials, such as bamboo, cotton, etc., which are processed into fibers; or synthetic fibers made from petrochemical raw materials, they are all called rayon.
However, most of the research papers indicate that "rayon is made from natural plant cellulose." Strictly speaking, only fibers made from natural plant cellulose can be called rayon .
Recycled Denim used jeans / recycled denim
Second-hand jeans were very popular in the 1970s . Second-hand jeans were redecorated with shiny materials such as crystals and embroidery, and then sold and worn.
Recycled denim refers to brand-new denim fabrics made from recycled raw materials, including second-hand jeans, leftovers from the production process of new jeans, and brand-new yarns left over from the spinning process.
Cotton fiber has a very long lifespan and often does not cause obvious damage to the fiber itself during the use of clothing. Therefore, after use, good cotton jeans can generally be recycled and decomposed into fibers, which can be spun into brand new yarns. Use it again on a brand new fabric.
In recent years, sustainable fabric factories and brands have jointly developed some recycled denim products, which are currently the most environmentally friendly denim fabrics in the world. A well-known cloth factory such as Candiani in Italy is an example.
Red Tab (Red Flag) small red flag
The small red flag was originally the small red logo design of LEVIS embroidered on the right back pocket of Levis . The conspicuous red color can let passers-by know the brand of the trousers from a distance. This design was successfully registered as a trademark by Levis in 1939 . Before 1971 , the small red flag was written as LEVI'S with big E , but after that year it was changed to Levi's .
Red ear, which means the denim fabric before 1986. When it is finished, a red, pink, etc. suture will be added to the edge of the fabric. It generally refers to "selvage denim". The finest denim on the market.
The most classic part of Levis jeans is the two red ears that are exposed when the outer trousers are opened. According to the "Pine Cone Denim Fabric Factory", the red ears appeared in the early 20th century, and the purpose was to distinguish each piece of dark blue denim. Selvedge color line.
Redcast red dyed denim
Red-dyed tannin is a method of indigo dyeing denim fabric. The principle is that before the yarn is indigo-dyed, it is first passed through a red sulfide dye medium, and the result is gray-dyed tannin with a reddish-purple tone. Red dyed denim fades to a bright, clean blue hue.
Rigid Denim raw denim
Same definition as Dry Denim and Raw Denim
Rinsed cleansing tannin, water
Rinse denim, similar to the one-wash treatment, makes the natural denim cloth soak in water for a short time to remove shrinkage. Because of the short water time, most of the dyes and the original stiff texture of the fabric can be retained.
Right Hand Twill (RHT) right twill denim
Right twill denim is a kind of twill denim. The twill direction of the fabric is from upper right to lower left. Right twill denim is the most traditional weaving method and is also the mainstream weaving method today.
Right twill denim is the type of fabric that Levis initially used to make jeans. Right twill has a tighter structure, and the color drop lines are clearer and stronger than left twill.
The term Ring Dye actually applies to all denim and indigo dyed products.
The principle is that the surface layer of the cotton wool is dyed in a circular manner. Depending on the number of times of dyeing, layers penetrate deep into the cotton thread, and then woven into denim fabric through spinning and other steps. This is why jeans will show white cotton due to friction after use. Because of the core, the denim cloth dyed by the "rope dyeing process" in the industry will have the best color fading and effect.
Through the ring dyeing effect combined with the structure of the twill fabric, denim has a unique fading ability that cannot be seen on other fabrics.
Ring Spun Denim
The category of denim fabric woven from ring spun cotton yarn is called Ring Spun Denim , which was invented in the United States in 1828. In the 1970s , "air spinning" was used to make denim cotton yarn before it was born. For denim For fabric factories, the ring spinning process accounts for up to 60% of the production cost.
The principle of ring spinning is to continuously rotate cotton yarn into finer yarns. The time required for the process is five times longer than that of "air spinning". Ring spinning has advantages in tensile strength, and because of the textile structure, it is resistant Weak in friction
Cotton yarn from ring spinning exhibits superior properties: irregular surface, concave and convex, high comfort, high strength
The details of ring-spun denim are often difficult to detect at the beginning, but after wearing, washing, and industrial washing, there will be more and better variability. This type of fabric has a strong vertical fall effect and both It has a retro uneven grainy feel.
Rivet is a metal fitting that reinforces the structure of the load-bearing part of jeans.
Jacob Davis ( Jacob Davis ) was the first person in history to apply rivets to trousers. One day, when he was designing trousers for the woodcutter, the horse blanket full of rivets beside him gave him a flash of inspiration: "Putting these rivets in the corners of trouser pockets may be effective in improving durability." You and I know the story later, and his inference is correct.
Soon, the success of rivet trousers spread all over the world. Levi Strauss , the founder of Levis , cooperated with him when he heard the news, and applied for a patent to the court. On May 20 , 1873 , the court granted Levis a "patent for improving the structure of the load-bearing part". , this day has also become the world-recognized birthday of jeans.
The length of the trousers, the length of the jeans from the main button to the joint of the crotch seam is the length of the front trousers, and the length of the back trousers from the middle of the back trousers to the joint of the crotch seam is the length of the back trousers.
River Wash light color wash, river brush color
Light-color washing, river brushing, a kind of jeans brushing process, which makes jeans light and soft. It mainly uses pumice and enzymes to add industrial washing machines and wash jeans together. This washing method has to be diluted and neutralized due to the pollution and chemical substances caused by pumice mining, which must be diluted and neutralized. Due to the improvement of today's environmental protection standards, it has been gradually eliminated.
Rope Dyeing (Rope Dyed) rope dyeing process
Rope Dye is recognized as the best way to produce "ring dyeing". Cotton yarn that has not been dyed is ready to be tied up with a machine to form individual rope dyeing monomers. The rope dyeing monomers are then dipped into and out of six to eight indigo dyeing vats through a long series of machines, and pulled out into the air after a short period of dyeing. Color, repeat dyeing as required to achieve the desired depth of color. Fabric factories specializing in rope dyeing include Kaihara Mill , a major Japanese factory.
Due to the extremely high cost, the rope dyeing method was gradually phased out as early as the 1980s when it was commercialized. Nowadays, this method is mostly used by high-end jeans brands. Also because of the popularity of selvedge fabrics in recent years, the rope dyeing method has gradually become popular among customers. attention.
Graphic introduction: 3sixteen’s visit to Kuroki, a famous Japanese factory
Roping (Rope Effect) tornado, trouser leg tornado
The tornado mainly refers to the tightening effect of the trousers of the jeans because of the chain car, which visually resembles the lines of the tornado.
During the sewing process of the jeans trousers through the chain car locomotive, different degrees of tension are driven into the fabric, and because of these tensions, the denim is usually pulled to produce wave-like tightening marks after completion.
Although denim lovers particularly prefer the trouser hem structure sewn by the antique chain machine Union Speical 43200G , it does not necessarily require this type of machine to produce tornadoes. It can only be said that the tension generated by 43200G sewing is particularly large, and the trouser hems are tornado The effect is usually very pronounced. In fact, any sewing method that creates uneven seam tension, or a trouser hem seam that shrinks, can cause a tornado.
Sanding matte treatment, hand rubbing treatment
Sanding treatment, hand rubbing treatment, a kind of finishing treatment for jeans, so that the appearance of jeans has a smoother, distressed touch and appearance. This method can be hand-held with special sandpaper, or industrial sanding machines, such as sandblasting machines, etc. Achieved, the result can be very subtle surface brushing, or obvious cat whisker pattern brushing, depending on the length of frosting treatment, the frosted trousers will simulate the effect of raising trousers, and the vision is more three-dimensional and natural.
Sandblasting, one of the washing methods, as the name suggests, is to spray sand on the denim fabric with a sandblasting gun, which can remove the indigo dye on the surface of the fabric and achieve a frosted effect, making the jeans look old. Between 2000 and 2010 , people began to realize that the sandblasting used by Levis , H&M , Diesel and other brands could cause permanent and fatal damage to workers, which caused these big brands to stop using sandblasting.
Pre-shrinking treatment. Today, almost all raw-color tannin fabrics are pre-shrunk in the manufacturing process to prevent the original-color pants from shrinking after the first time they are put into the water. Usually, the European jeans washing label will indicate that there is about 3% shrinkage. That is, the shrinkage ratio after preshrinking.
In the early 1930s , the jeans before the 1930s had a shrinkage rate of more than 10% on average for the first time in the water, and the shrinkage would vary after several times in the water, causing the wearer’s waist to be too tight or the length of the pants to be too short to expose the ankles. , choosing jeans at that time was probably a gamble with shrinkage as a bet!
And for a man named Sanford. Larkwood. For Mr. Cluett (Sanford Lockwood Cluett) , the shrinkage issue at that time became his personal vendetta. In the 1919s , Sanford joined his uncle's company, a factory that produced stiff, detachable collars for shirts. At first the business was doing well, but somehow everyone suddenly fell in love with soft, comfortable collars. The company's sales plummeted. The company decided to avoid this downturn by producing shirts with collars, but encountered serious shrinkage problems after the shirts were launched, and Sanford was determined to solve this problem in order to save the Kraut family business.
In 1930 , Sanford (Sanford) obtained his patent for " controlled pre-shrinking process " , and then named the process " Sanforization" after Sanford. This revolutionary treatment process is to make the fabric shrink in advance, so that there will be no excessive stretching during the cutting and tailoring process; at the same time, the finished garment will not shrink excessively after it is launched into the water.
In the process of making a pair of jeans, the tannin fabric itself is under great tension, and each warp and weft yarn has elasticity, which allows the jeans to stretch in the length of the trousers or the width of the waist. If the internal friction between the fibers is removed, it can be reduced. This tension is what happens when jeans are washed with water. The detergent and the washing machine make the fibers relax and return to their original length, making the jeans shrink as a whole. Better jeans will loosen after wearing. But after washing, it will shrink back to its original size for this reason.
" Shrinking treatment " can be regarded as a "finishing treatment" method that simulates washing and unwatered woven fabrics in advance. After the woven fabrics are put into the shrinking machine, the machine will shrink them with high-temperature water or steam, and then go through a series of processes. The rollers and conveyor belts are stretched and stretched, and then compressed to become the final product. After this treatment, the woven fabric will not shrink too much during the manufacturing process.
Satin (Sateen) satin cloth, satin weave
Satin cloth, or satin cloth, Satin and Sateen in English are cloths that are often confused by people and have similar structures. Because of the structure of Satin fabric, most of the warp threads are exposed on the front of the fabric, resulting in an excellent gloss on the front of the fabric, while the gloss on the back is dull. Traditionally, satin is woven with silk, but now most of it is made of polyester fiber, Synthetic fibers such as nylon and rayon are most commonly used in pajamas, underwear, dresses and ballet shoes. The unexpected structure of Sateen is that the weft thread is mainly exposed on the fabric surface. The fabric is extremely soft and has a high gloss feel. Even though the appearance is similar to Satin fabric, Sateen is usually made of pure cotton, which is most commonly used to make bed sheets and the inside of coats.
Selvedge / Selvage / Self-edge selvedge, selvedge denim
Selvedge fabric and selvedge denim fabric refer to the selvedges that have their own edges on the left and right sides after the fabric is woven, and no additional edges are needed to fix it. Traditionally, only "old-fashioned shuttle looms" can weave this type of fabric .
Modern looms are cut after each weft thread passes through the warp thread, so ordinary fabrics have frayed edges after weaving.
The selvedge fabric produced by old-fashioned shuttle looms has a fabric width of only 75 cm. Compared with modern looms of 150 cm or more, the efficiency is much slower, but it has a unique texture and durability that ordinary fabrics do not have.
Nowadays, selvedge fabric is regarded as the representative of the top quality. Its irregular pattern and color change are unattainable by all other fabrics. Because the production process is very time-consuming, it is usually produced with the highest grade raw materials. , Selvedge jeans are also the highest quality and most expensive jeans on the market.
Due to the prosperity of raw-color trousers and selvage in Western Europe and North America in recent years, some cheap brands have begun to imitate the appearance of selvedge with modern machines. Therefore, jeans with selvedge may not have the high quality mentioned above, depending on the brand. The price depends on the actual materials used.
Selvedge ID selvedge color, selvedge ID
Selvage color refers to one or more color lines sewn on the selvage. In Chinese, it is often represented by the word "ear", such as red ear, blue ear, white fungus, etc. The appearance of selvage was originally used between cloth factories. To distinguish each other as a mark, until more and more brands appeared, the cloth factory used the color of the edge of the cloth to distinguish which brand each piece of cloth was produced for. Instead, red selvage ( red ear ) is used, while Lee is classic with blue ( blue ear ) and green ( green ear ) selvage. Nowadays, brands usually use the standard color used in their own image and graphic design as the color of the selvage.
Sea Island Cotton
Sea-island cotton is an ancient cotton fiber that was grown in the British West Indies as early as the early 18th century. It is picked from a perennial plant that grows in a tropical climate. Sea-island cotton accounts for only 0.0004 % of the global long-staple cotton supply each year , is the rarest cotton in the world, not one of them.
The ultra - long fibers possessed by pure sea-island cotton can generally be called ultra-long-fiber cotton. Excellent fiber strength and high elasticity, uniform fineness, and eye-catching natural luster, together make the woven fabric smoother than any previous cotton, and the hand feel is absolutely luxurious. The uniformity of sea island cotton fibers and The sophistication makes the sea-island cotton feel better and better after repeated washing over time, and the color continues to be fresh. This also makes sea island cotton the best cotton variety in the world.
The high-quality cotton that is more popular now, such as American cotton Pima , Egyptian cotton Giza and Xinjiang long-staple cotton, etc., all belong to sea-island cotton in a broad sense. The spinning of sea island cotton is usually handed over to high-end producing areas such as Sweden and Italy, and the final fabric form is completed in the hands of first-class manufacturers.
Authentic high-priced sea-island cotton yarn is basically only provided to a very small number of luxury brands to make their own best high-end items. It is no longer a problem that the output is scarce, but even if it is produced in the West Indies, there are certain differences in the cotton grown in different countries.
Skewing anti-twist bone treatment
Anti-twisting bone treatment, a treatment method that has been passed through the process of fabric weaving and finishing in advance, so that the jeans have the ability to resist "twisting bones" when they are launched into the water. To offset the rotation of the jeans' trousers, it will be calculated at the time of fabric weaving. The opposite angle resists the tension of the fabric. For example, right twill must be anti-twist boned in a counterclockwise direction, while left twill must be anti-twist boned in a clockwise direction.
Generally speaking, depending on all factors such as the overall weave of the fabric, the use of materials, etc., the jeans leg that has not been designed and processed usually has a twist of 4-10% .
Some original color pants, because they have been cut and patterned with anti-twisting bones in advance, the trousers will be twisted to the right or left when the trousers are brand new. .
The shuttle is an important part of the shuttle loom, which is used to carry the weft thread of the loom, shuttle back and forth across the warp thread, and weave into cloth. The difference between the fabric woven by shuttle looms and modern looms is that the finished product will have selvedges, which are called "selvage fabrics".
The shuttle loom was first patented in 1733. Before that, cloth was woven manually. The invention of the shuttle loom also allowed factories to weave wider fabrics.
Shrink-to-Fit shrunk fit jeans, unshrunk jeans
Shrunk fit jeans, this noun has no special Chinese words to represent it, it can only be explained in meaning, or it can be summarized as unshrunk jeans. It can only be worn after shrinkage. Early denim fabrics usually belong to this type of fabric because they have not been "preshrunk".
Before 1959 , Levis jeans were sold in unshrunk form. You had to buy unshrunk trousers in original colors that were a few sizes larger, and then shrunk them in the water at home, and then started wearing them after they became the correct size. A small number of brands that specialize in re-engraving reproduce the structure and settings of the early fabrics in the old way, and continue to sell this type of jeans. Or, the brand will "wash" with water before selling to remove the shrinkage, so that customers can buy them back. Home can be worn directly.
Singeing treatment is one of the final processes before the fabric leaves the factory. The flame quickly passes over the surface of the fabric to burn off the fine fibers and stray hairs on the surface of the fabric to achieve a neat and clean appearance.
After natural fiber fabric is singed, it can provide a smooth surface feel, reduce the possibility of pilling, and improve the quality of dyeing. Cloth made of synthetic fibers can be difficult to handle because the fibers will melt, leaving a solid residue on the surface.
The surface of the singeing-treated jeans is more delicate, with low fluff feeling. Some retro and replica brands deliberately avoid the use of singeing in order to retain the original characteristics of denim.
Silk, the fiber drawn from the chrysalis of silkworms, can be divided into wild silk and artificially cultivated silk.
The tenacity of silk is strong, and the tensile force is slightly equal to the rigid thread of the same thickness. It is stronger than all artificial and natural fibers, and it is not easy to be damaged by hooking. Silk has high hygroscopicity, 1.5 times that of cotton fiber, and can quickly wick away sweat. Silk fiber has good thermal insulation, and its tissue is porous, which can absorb gas and form a thermal insulation layer. Silk has good air permeability, and can be made into thinner fabrics due to its high wearability. It is cool and breathable, and is very suitable for wearing in hot weather.
Slim Fit Fit Pant, Small Straight
Fit pants type, fit pants type is close to the body from the thigh to the calf but maintains a certain degree of movement. The trousers are much smaller than the straight trousers.
Skinny Fit Leggings, Narrow Fit
Fitted trousers, from the thigh to the calf to the bottom of the trousers, fit the body completely, and the narrow trousers clearly show the shape of the legs.
Slub (Slubness/Slubby) Slub
Slub feeling, a kind of fabric vision and feel, refers to any obvious concave-convex texture on the surface of denim produced by old-fashioned shuttle looms.
In the manufacturing process of "selvage cloth", the traditional yarns used usually have irregular thickness characteristics, which will cause irregular and random concave-convex textures on the surface of the woven fabric. Bamboo-like slub, brands or fabric factories will deliberately use special yarns to emphasize the slub effect.
Slub yarn is deliberately spun into long, short, and thick yarn fibers to make fabrics with a "slub feel".
The slub feeling produced by the slub yarn was regarded as a flaw in the weaving of early denim fabrics. However, it is precisely because of such flaws that the selvedge fabric is different from all other fabrics. Modern high-end brands usually deliberately use Old method, slub yarn, etc. are used to weave a variety of primary color fabrics with different personalities.
Starching sizing treatment
Sizing treatment, one of the methods in the fabric production process, adds sizing during the washing process to make the fabric absorb and harden.
Sizing dates back to the sixteenth century, when it was popularly used to stiffen shirt collars. Nowadays, most denim manufacturers add size during the production process in order to facilitate the cutting and sewing of primary-colored fabrics, and some of the size will be removed during pre-shrinking or rinsing, leaving the primary-colored pants with the size. Helps shape "training trousers" and creases when worn, resulting in more intense color fading.
Stone washing, the main method of brushing color trousers, in the process of washing jeans in the factory, add pumice stones and wash them with the jeans to rub and make the jeans lighter. Generally, stone washing takes an hour, but especially the old ones Light brushes can take up to six hours.
The pumice stone used in the stonewashing process can be natural mining or man-made. During the stonewashing process, the pumice stone will cause certain damage to the jeans. Compared with the original color pants, the durability of the brushed pants will be slightly lower. In addition, stone-washed jeans need to be washed with a lot of water to remove chemical substances and pumice residues. In the end, pumice waste will also cause environmental pollution. Therefore, many manufacturers have switched to using more environmentally friendly methods such as enzyme washing in recent years. Washing method.
Straight-leg trousers, a type of classic trousers, visually have wide straight lines of uniform width from the thigh to the bottom of the trousers. Traditional straight-leg pants usually fit slightly through the thigh and are completely loose from the knee to the calf.
Stretch Denim stretch denim
Elastic denim fabric refers to the denim fabric in which the "weft thread" of the fabric is blended with a certain proportion of polyester or other elastic fibers. This kind of fabric will be closer to the body than pure cotton fabric. "Pine Cone Denim Fabric Factory" is the first A fabric factory that started producing elastic fabrics in 1962 .
Sulfur Dye is a type of vat dyeing ( same as Indigo indigo dyeing ) which is insoluble in water itself, and can become water-soluble and attached to fabric fibers through the reduction process.
Generally used for black, red, blue, coffee, khaki, green dyeing, can be blended with synthetic fibers
The common use is more than vegetable fibers, such as cotton and hemp.
The manufacturing process of sulfur dyeing industry is not difficult, and it is a relatively economical choice. The finished cotton has a certain color fastness, moderate resistance to rubbing fading, and low resistance to bleaching substances such as chlorine.
Synthetic Indigo synthetic blue dye ( dye )
Synthetic indigo dye was first invented by Adolf von Baeyer in 1880. It has the same chemical structure as natural indigo dye. After its invention, it almost completely replaced the use of natural indigo dye.
Synthetic indigo dye powder contains 95% indigo dye pigment, which is much higher than natural indigo dye. Compared with natural indigo dye with impurities, it has a more natural and layered color. Synthetic indigo dye has a full and consistent color, and the price is cheap and the dyeing effect is good. It is suitable for industrial mass production. Use for staining.
Superfuture Online Community
An online community, Superfuture is an online forum focusing on travel, fashion and style. A sub-section of SuperDenim that gathers many European and American outfits and denim players.
Suspender Buttons suspender ( button ) buckle
The suspender buckle refers to the button or metal button that is sewn or fixed on the top of the jeans and used to connect the suspenders. Generally, there are two buttons on the front and one in the middle on the back. Usually high-waisted trousers or loose trousers have a suspender buckle design, because the use of such trouser belts is not convenient, and the suspenders can be easily put on and taken off quickly.
The design of the sling buckle gradually declined after World War I, because of the appearance of military belts at that time, coupled with changes in wearing habits such as fewer and fewer people wearing vests. It was not until the invention of the "belt loop" in the 1930s that the belt buckle was officially replaced.
Tab back pocket small flag
It means "little red flag".
Tapered Fit tapered pants, tapered pants
Tapered cut, which refers to a trouser shape that narrows from the hem to the hem, generally loose through the thigh and narrower at the hem.
Tabacco Stitching Tobacco Stitching
Tobacco-colored stitching refers to the classic thread color of jeans, which is yellow-orange stitching similar to tobacco color.
Tate-Ochi vertical fall
Vertical drop, used in Japanese to describe jeans, the straight color drop produced after fading. The vertical fall is due to the uneven friction caused by the concave-convex structure of "slub cotton", resulting in irregular color fading with obvious straight lines. Usually, the vertical fall effect of vintage selvedge jeans is particularly obvious.
TENCEL® is the brand name of the world's most famous lyocell fiber. Lyocell fiber is a fiber extracted from natural fibers in wood pulp. The raw material is 100% plant fiber made from refined wood pulp. The raw wood used to make these pulps comes from forests managed by the Forest Standards Council.
Lyocell fiber (lyocell) , a green fiber in the 21st century, is a regenerated biological fiber made of N- methyl chromium oxide ( NMMO ) as a solvent method for wet spinning. Improve natural degradation, 99.5% of the amine oxide solvent can be recycled and reused in the production process. " Extremely low pollution, and does not pollute the environment." Lyocell fiber has many advantages, including moisture absorption, breathability, heat conduction, antibacterial, and anti-dust mite. Lyocell fiber is soft and comfortable to the touch, but very strong in texture. It is currently the highest quality natural and environmentally friendly fiber.
Train track, train track-like fading that typically occurs when the outside seams of vintage jeans fade.
Triple Needle Stitch
Sanben sewing machine is usually used in the structural sewing of work clothes. The industrial sewing method in which the three sewing lines are parallel to each other, the strength and durability of the garment using the sanben sewing machine are higher at the seam.
Topstitching surface pressure line
Surface stitching, the stitching sewn on the surface of clothing, can be functional and decorative at the same time, giving the garment a cleaner appearance.
Twill fabric, with obvious oblique texture in the appearance of the fabric, was originally made of 100 % cotton, and now there are twill fabrics woven from various natural fibers. The most common items made from it are trousers, widely known as slacks. Twill was developed for British and French military uniforms in the mid- 19th century, and has since been gradually transformed into civilian clothing. When Spanish-American War veterans returned from the Philippines wearing twill military trousers, trousers made of this fabric were extremely popular in the United States.
The difference between twill and flat plain is that plain weave is interlaced one up and one down, twill is two up and one down or three up and down, plain weave has the same front and back, twill has different front and back, and the front is twill to the left or right, if it is the same
Yarn count and density, the plain weave is tight and thick, and the twill weave structure is relatively loose.
Type 1 Denim Jacket generation denim jacket
The first-generation denim jacket is the initial form of mass-produced denim jacket. It was launched by Levis in 1905 and is commonly seen in worker uniforms from 1906 to 1952. The original first-generation denim jacket has a pocket on the chest, a shirt-style collar, and two plackets. Side pleated design, and Paris button on the back to adjust the tightness.
Type 2 Denim Jacket second generation denim jacket
The second-generation denim jacket is a slight improvement based on the first-generation denim jacket. The biggest difference from the first-generation denim jacket is the addition of a second symmetrical pocket design.
Levis named the second-generation denim jacket 507XX . This jacket only had a production history of less than ten years from 1953 to 1962. After that, it was replaced by the most common third-generation denim jacket. It is extremely precious for collectors or replica brand players.
Type 3 Denim Jacket / Trucker Jacket three generations of denim jacket
Three generations of denim jackets, invented by Levis in 1962 in the form of denim jackets, named 557XX , this is the world's first denim jacket with arrow-shaped pockets, also known as trucker jackets in English.
Unisex Design Unisex Clothing
Unisex clothing, jeans are the best representative of unisex clothing design, which can be worn by both men and women.
Uneven Yarn Irregular Yarn
Irregular yarn, specially made yarn with irregular thickness, texture and slub feeling. Also known as "slub yarn".
Union Special antique industrial sewing machine brand
Union Special used to be the most famous manufacturer of industrial sewing machines in the United States in history. Today, the most famous product is the " 43200G Chain Lathe Machine", because it can sew jeans seams with a unique "tornado" effect.
Unwashed Denim Unwashed Denim
Unwashed denim, as the name implies, is a denim fabric that has not been "watered" or "pre-shrunk". Generally speaking, it refers to the selvedge fabric woven with old-fashioned shuttle looms in primary colors. It can also be called "primary color tannin".
Velvet, velvet or velvet is a cloth with evenly spaced yarns and a short, dense pile that gives velvet a distinctive feel. Velvet can be made from either synthetic materials or natural yarns.
Features of velvet fabric: velvet fluff or pile loops stand up tightly, good color, noble and elegant, strong and wear-resistant fabric, not easy to fade, and good resilience.
Vintage Denim antique denim
Antique denim, including old jeans and denim tops, as well as denim clothing that is old in stock but in new condition.
Since the 1980s , the market for antique denim has skyrocketed. Collectors wander around large and small second-hand vintage shops to find treasures, looking for original denim jackets from decades ago, worn by previous owners or time-honored. Through experience, this kind of antique denim has a unique color fading performance. The performance and detail design of old products in different years are different, and different brands also have their own exclusive brand design and characteristics. For example, Levis 's old Big E has a red ear design, which means that the best quality selvage was used at that time, and the stitches at that time were not tobacco-colored stitches, but yellow lemon-colored stitches.
Virgin Fiber new fiber
New fiber refers to brand new fiber that has never been woven into cloth, and is usually used to refer to wool that is harvested and used for the first time.
Waist Overall jeans
Jeans, the first term used to refer to jeans in the United States. In 1873, the founder of Levis first used waist overall to call their denim trousers products. This term was widely used before 1960 , until later it changed to jeans as the mainstream term.
Wales wick count
The number of wicks, the number of all wicks within an inch width, is used to indicate the width and density of the wick of the corduroy fabric. Usually, the fabric with a lower number has a thicker wick structure, and the lower the number, the thinner and narrower it is. Corduroy numbers are between 10-12 .
Washed Jeans (Pre-wash jeans) brush color pants
Color-painted trousers, every pair of jeans is originally a piece of original-color trousers. If it is not processed, it will be dark blue, stiff, and in a state of original color. Color-washed trousers are based on original-color trousers, which are washed with different methods and imitated. As a result, the closer the distressed pants are to the pants worn by real people, the more natural and beautiful the color is.
Warp thread, in the weaving of denim, the weaving direction of the warp thread is parallel to the edge of the cloth, and is fixed in a straight direction. Twist so it can carry more tension on the textile and provide strength.
Weft (Filling) weft
Weft, in the weaving of denim, refers to the horizontal yarn, generally the white yarn on the back of denim.
The weave method is a fabric structure composed of warp and weft threads, including common weaving structures such as "plain weave", "twill weave" and "satin weave".
In the classification of denim, it is mainly divided into "right denim", "left denim" and "ripped denim".
Weight Fabric pounds
Fabric pounds, in terms of denim weight measurement, indicates how much a yard of denim weighs. The general unit is expressed in oz= ounces. For details, please refer to the description of "Ounces".
Commonly used denim fabric thickness is distinguished by 5-6oz featherweight pounds; 8-12oz light weight denim; 12-15oz medium weight denim; 16-20oz heavy weight denim; 21oz and above are called super heavy weight denim ; 32oz and 40oz are currently the thickest denim fabrics in the world.
Cat's whiskers mean the same as "cat's whiskers" and "cat's whiskers".
Width fabric width
The fabric width refers to the width of the finished product after the fabric is completed. It can be divided into two types of fabrics: "selvage fabric" and "non-selvage fabric".
Blue Bell, formerly known as the "Blue Bell" brand established in 1904. In 1946 , Blue Bell was one of the largest manufacturers of workwear at that time. The products were mainly designed to be worn while riding a horse. At that time, the famous tailor "Rodeo" was invited. Ben" makes a line of denim called 13MWZ ( Zipper Men's Jeans ) , which has been tested by denim professionals Jim Shoulders , Bill Linderman and Freckles Brown . In 1948 , World Cowboy Champion Jim Shoulders officially endorsed Blue Brother. It was not until his death in 2007 that this historic relationship ended. It is also the longest celebrity endorsement record in the world.
Woad pine blue
Pine blue, before the age of great exploration in the 16th and 17th centuries, pine blue was the mainstream source of blue dye in Europe. Pine blue itself is also the name of a plant, which can be fermented and extracted to obtain "blue dye". In the Middle Ages, it was known as the queen's dye because of its high commercial value as a spice commodity.
Denim pants, "original color", "unwashed" and "pre-shrunk" jeans are usually stiff and unnatural in the initial state. After several long-term wearing, the fabric wrinkles are fixed and worn to the body shape, visually natural fit, When the body feels more comfortable, the trousers are completed.
XX Levis jeans model
The original product model of Levis 501 was XX . At that time, XX was the text printed on the label to express the meaning of "Extra, Extra Strong" or "Double Extra Heavy" extra tough work pants. Levis XX originally had only one pocket on the right rear, and it was not until 1901 that a second rear pocket was added. The XX model was renamed 501 in the 1890s , named after a certain batch number produced at that time.
Yarn refers to the textile thread made of natural fiber or synthetic fiber.
Yarn dyed, where the yarn is pre-dyed before being sewn into cloth. "Rope dyeing" and "Hank dyeing" are all methods of yarn dyeing.
Yarn Count yarn number
The yarn number is used to indicate the thickness of the yarn, expressed in terms of weight per unit length, usually measured by the weight of a kilometer of yarn.
Yoke faucet structure / cut structure
The faucet structure refers to the Y- shaped structure on the back of the jeans, which resembles the faucet of a motorcycle, so it is named in Chinese. The design structure of the faucet is optional. Generally, the faucet of jeans can be high or low, and the V shape can be deep or shallow, which is used to highlight the thin buttocks, or conversely narrow the visual sense of the fleshy buttocks.
A zipper, made of metal or plastic, with a toothed structure used to close two pieces of fabric.